Surgical instruments are tools that are used to perform desired actions during surgery. Surgical instruments should be properly cleaned by sterilization to kill any microbes on them. In surgery, wide number of instruments are used. Some of the commonly used instruments are:
- Needle Holders
- Towel Clamps
Scissors: Scissors are used in the surgery for the purpose of cutting tissues. Normally these scissors are available in blunt and sharp edges with straight and curved scissors. These scissors should run smoothly and should not bind with the cutting tissue. These are of 2 types:
- Metzenbaum scissors are straight scissors with sharp ends. These are used to cut delicate tissues.
- Mayo scissors are straight scissors with blunt ends. These are used to cut heavy fascia and sutures. These are used to raise skin flaps by sharp dissection.
Forceps: Forceps are two bladed instrument attached together at one end. These are used to hold the tissue or for handling sterile dressings. Forceps are of following types:
- Dressing and tissue forceps: Dressing forceps are forceps with smooth tips for holding sterile dressings. Tissue forceps are forceps with rough tips or have teeth to hold the tissue. These are classified into following based on their function.
- Lister sinus forceps used to hold the gauge swab to clean the wounds.
- Rat tooth tissue forceps are used to hold the skin or dense tissue with out slipping.
- Adson tissue forceps have small ridges on edge of tips. It is used to hold light and delicate tissue.
- Allis tissue forceps have sharp teeth to hold intestinal tissue and tissue on skin.
- Babcock tissue forceps are delicate forceps and are broad smooth tips used to hold bowl or bladder.
- Hemostatic forceps: Hemostatic forceps are used to clamp and hold blood vessels. These are available in either straight or curved shape. They are of following types:
- Kochars Hemostatic forceps used in the appendectomy.
- Spencer well’s forceps are used to hold the bleeding vessel.
- Mosquito Hemostatic Forceps used in infant surgeries to hold bleeding blood vessels.
- Intestinal forceps: Used in the intestinal surgery. These are of 2 types, doyen intestinal forceps and payr pylorus clamps. These are used to hold the bowl or bladder tissue.
Needle holders: Needle holders are used to hold the needle during sutures.
Retractor: Retractors are also used for holding purpose only. These are either hand held or self retaining.
Towel clamps: Towel clamp is a surgical instrument used to secure towel and surgical draping the patient during surgery.