Provisions of The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)

Labor Law PostersOne of the major objectives of the Labor laws is to ensure that discrimination does not happen to employers at the workplace and their interests and welfare remains safeguarded. The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) ensures that the employees are not exploited by their employers by forcing them for undue work at low wages.

The FLSA establishes various work related parameters like minimum wages, work hours, overtime payment, record keeping an child labor. The employer has to follow these standards strictly. In this way, the FLSA ensures that the employee is paid fairly for his work and is not subjected to heavy work without compensating it with a rate stated in the Act. This promotes employee satisfaction and a better workplace environment and culture. Though this act is enforced by the Federal agency, States are also eligible to frame their own laws related to aspects covered under the FLSA.

The FLSA is a mandatory law and needs posters to be displayed at workplace at suitable locations for information of the employees.

Provisions of the FLSA
The provisions of the FLSA cover all employees under private, Federal, State and local government bodies.

The minimum wage is established at $7.25 per hour and all the covered non-exempt employees has to be paid a minimum of $7.25 per hour. Employees below 20 years of age have to be paid $4.25 for the first 90 days of the employment. In cases, when both the Federal and State minimum wages are applicable to an employer, the higher wage has to be paid.

Even though compliance posters of both Federal and State agencies have to be displayed. Under the Equal Pay Act, discrimination in pay should not be on gender basis if both do the same job under similar skill, effort, responsibility and work conditions.

The work hours in a workweek are limited to 40 hours in a recurring period of 168 hours. This work time has to be compensated at regular rate of minimum wage. Any work done by the employee over this time is known as overtime and has to be compensated at 1.5 times the regular wage. The work hours are not limited to employees aged more than 16 years. Work done on holidays cannot be treated as overwork unless overtime is done on these days.

The FLSA also clearly defines work hours leaving no traces of doubt in its interpretation. Work hour broadly includes all the time employee is present in the employer premises or at workplace due to his duty. This includes meal time and the time an employee has to travel. Though time incurred while transition between home and workplace cannot be treated as work time.

Record keeping is mandatory as per the FLSA and the employer is required to maintain all the required data of employees and their daily report status, etc. Posters highlighting the provisions of the FLSA should be displayed at the workplace in places where they are easily accessible to the employees.

The FLSA also establishes Child Labor laws to ensure that their right to education and interests are not violated. Children under 12 years of age cannot be employed for work. Children between 12-16 years of age can be employed for a limited number of hours only. Those who are aged 16-18 years can be employed in non-hazardous environments for unlimited number of hours. When an employer is also subjected to State child labor laws, the laws of the State are generally more stringent than Federal laws.

Nature of compliance
The FLSA is a mandatory law and covers all the private, Federal, State and local government bodies. The general compliance is expected in the form of following the rules and provisions of the FLSA and displaying of posters by the employer at places where they are easily accessible to the employees. Employees are free to complaint to the agencies directly in case of non-compliance. Non-compliance can draw heavy fines and penalties.
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Steps Involved in Event Management

Event Design San FranciscoEvent Management is a planned structure to make sure the event is conducted smoothly. It involves events like occasional events, special events, meetings, conferences, etc. Steps involved in event management are stated under. These are very important for event management.

Research:
It is the very important stage of every event. If the research is made excellently then risks involved in event management are reduced. Better research is major for any kind of event. It helps to know the needs and desires of targeted group of audience. If research is made at starting stages of the event then there won’t be waste of time and money in later stages. In research phase there is a chance of understanding 5 W’s of the event i.e., why, what, when, where and who.

Why: Why the event is conducted?
What: What are the things you are planning for the event?
When: When the event will be conducted?
Where: The event venue details i.e., where you are going to organize the event?
Who: Who will be your partners, sponsors and organizers for the event?

Design:
If you are done with research phase then event manager has a clear understanding of the event and makes his job easy in designing the event. It is one of the crucial stage because here the event managers need to understand the event conceptually and visually. While designing the event for clients you must use your innovative thoughts. Designing mainly depends on the culture of the organization. Thorough analysis and assessment helps to think about needs of the event.

Planning:
Planning is the longest period in the event management. Because the plan can be changed frequently due to many reasons which results in addition, deletion and substitution. If the research and design are made perfectly and carefully then there is a chance of less time for planning and leads to smooth planning. This phase involves use of time, space and tempo.

Coordination:
This is the execution stage of event. Here you have to make minute by minute activities of the event carefully and you must have ability to make good decisions. Event managesr role is major in this phase. He/she has to make correct decisions, must have the ability to solve the problems, must have positive attitude. Thorough analysis must be made to over come the challenges.

Evaluation:
Research and evaluation are linked. Here event managers evaluate the research made through a review of all phases involved in event management. It can be reviewed through written survey, mail survey, etc. This helps event manager to know the opinions, respondents knowledge and other factors before and after the event.

Treatment for Temporomandibular Joint Disorder

Temporomandibular joint is the joint which connects the mandible to the skull. Pain or misalignment or dysfunctioning of tempororomandibular joint causes disorder.

This can be treated by various ways such as:
Non-surgical treatment
Most jaw or joint problems are temporary and this can be treated with non surgical methods where surgery is not required. Non surgical treatment includes:

  • Medications: Medications are used in conjunction with other non-surgical treatments to relive from pain.
  • NSAIDS: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed to relieve muscle from inflammation and pain.
  • Muscle relaxants: This type of drugs are given to reduce the pain caused by the TMJ disorders
  • Sedatives: Sedatives are prescribed if clenching of teeth during night time aggravate TMJ pain.
  • Anti-depressants: Dentist prescribe low doses of tricyclic anti-depressants to reduce or control pain in joint.
  • Therapies: Sometimes therapies are necessary to treat temporomandibular joint disorders.
  • Night guard or splint: Wearing splint or guards prevents the upper and lower jaw to come closer and clenching and grinding of teeth not possible. It also helps to position the teeth in exact position and improves biting ability.
  • Ultra sound therapy: In this therapy, deep heat is applied over the temporomandibular joint to improve mobility of jaw.
  • Radio wave therapy: In this, low level electric stimulation is created over temporomandibular joint there by increase in the blood flow leads to relieve from pain.

Surgical treatment
Surgical treatment for temporomandibular disorder is chosen if non surgical treatment have been unsuccessful. The surgical treatments include:

  • Arthrocentesis: Arthrocentesis is a surgical procedure used in patients with restricted jaw movements. It is performed to patients who do not have a history of TMJ disorders. In this surgery, general anesthesia is given to anesthetize the patient and needle is inserted into the effected joint and wash with sterile fluid. Sometimes a blunt needle like instrument is used to dislodge the disc stuck in the ball portion of the ball and socket joint
  • Arthroscopy: Before performing this surgery, general anesthesia is given to prevent pain during surgery. In this, an incision is made in front of the ear and insert a small thin instrument that contains light and lens and is connected to the video screen through which surgeon examine the TMJ disorder and removes inflamed tissue and realign the jaw
  • Open Joint Surgery: Open joint surgery is performed if tumors on TMJ or deterioration of jaw joint. Like all the surgical procedures, general anesthesia is given. Then entire area around the TMJ is opened to view the TMJ. Corrections are done to the TMJ to function properly and close the entire area and sutures are made.

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Advantages of a Four Stroke Engine

Four stroke engine is widely used in the manufacturing of an automotive. Excluding the electric cars, a four stroke engine is a vital component of almost every automobile. So understanding of a four stroke engine is important and the user should know which type of engine he is using. Further below we will discuss the advantages of four stroke engine.

Fuel efficient
Fuel efficiency was one of the reasons four stroke engine is preferred over its rival two stroke engine. In a four stroke engine, all the strokes are clearly defined and discrete, so complete combustion of the fuel happens. This leads to fuel being used completely that is charged in.

Long life and durability
Over its two stroke counterpart, four stroke engines have better durability and a long engine life. The four stroke engines revolve a less number of turns since it has to maintain less RPM. This leads to lesser wear and tear of the engine thereby increasing its life. A two stroke engine is rated for high RPM. Thus greater the wear and tear and less life of the engine. High wear and tear engine is prone to more maintenance also.

Good torque
A four stroke engine has to do undergo four strokes for a single power stroke, whereas a two stroke engine can do it only in two strokes. So a four stroke engine produces less power than a two stroke engine. But due to complete combustion of fuel and systematic stroke action, four stroke engines have more torque even though the RPM produced is less.

Quieter and clean operation
A systematic and consolidated full fledged action of four discrete strokes ensure that fuel is completely burn in the cylinder. Additionally, a separate system handling the lubricating oil ensures that only fuel is burnt in the cylinder. This leads to quieter and cleaner operation. In two stroke engines, lubricating oil that is mixed with the fuel also undergoes combustion that leads to spilling out of oil and unburnt fuel. This makes the operation dirty and noisy.

Conventionally, engine was classified into two stroke engine and four stroke engine depending upon the number of operations required for the operation of the engine. Though two stroke engines produced almost double the power, they have become obsolete over the time due to few disadvantages. Though the four stroke engine was complicated in design and manufacturing, it survived because of the advantages.
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OSHA: Fire Hazard Protection

Fire hazard guidelines by OSHA apply to most of the industry. Though fire hazard are not common except for a few industries, time is one of the most unexpected factors in the world and you never know which time your workplace may meet with a fire hazard. In such cases, the employer should be prepared for the action. This needs preparations before hand.

Employers must train their employees to handle fire related hazards at the workplace with the use of fire extinguishers and a how-to-escape plan. Though many of the industries are not mandated to have fire extinguishers and emergency actions plans at the workplace by OSHA, OSHA always recommends the workplace to have such plans and fire fighting equipment.

Requirements for emergency fire exits
The workplace should have at least two fire exits and make sure they are located far from each other. Though there is no restrictions on the number of fire exits and one can do, it has to be ensured that the number of fire exit are capable enough to evacuate all the workforce in due time in case of a fire hazard. This is related to the number of employees present and the accommodating capacity of the exit. The fire exits must be clearly identifiable by marking them with exit signs. Fire exits should be made of fire resistant material and they should not be blocked or locked when employees are working inside. In addition, the exit route has be spacious enough, properly illuminated and free from any blockades or obstructions. It should lead to a safe place.

Emergency Action Plan (EAP) for fire hazards
Not all employers are required to have one by OSHA but it is always preferred to have one. EAP gives employees the clarity of action and procedures to be carried in case of fire hazard without any state of confusion. An EAP includes the following things:

  • Routes and procedures in case of a hazard and necessary training. It should be documented and kept for review.
  • It should ensure evacuation of all the employees including the disabled and the persons who stay behind to shut down important plant machinery.
  • Proper alarm systems to identify the hazard.
  • Review of the plan to be done with new employees and with all the employees in case of change of plan.

Fire Prevention Plan (FPP) for fire hazards
Just like EAP, FPP is also not mandatory for every employer but it is preferred to have one. But unlike EAP, FPP is concerned with taking precautionary measures before hand to avoid any chance of fire hazards. It includes the following things:

  • The plan must be available for review and discussed with new employees and all the employees whenever the plan is changed. Potential fire hazards must be communicated to the employees on job.
  • It contains proper procedures such as cleaning, handling, packaging and storage of flammable materials.
  • It also provides procedures for controlling ignition sources like smoking, welding and burning. And, cleaning and maintenance of heat producing equipment such as burners, ovens and stoves.

Having proper safety procedures and plans at workplace ensures that fire hazards are minimized at workplace and in cases of fire hazards, proper steps are taken and appropriate procedures are carried out to mitigate the hazard and provide safety to life and property.
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How to Depressurize a Fuel Lines in Your Vehicle

Modern vehicle/cars are equipped with fuel injection system to supply the correct amount of air/fuel mixture to be burned in the engine cylinders. The fuel injection systems are operated under high pressure, therefore before trying to replace the components of the fuel injection system some maintenance work is to be done, such as replacement of the fuel filter, the fuel system must be depressurized.

In this article, let us discuss how to depressurize a fuel line in your vehicle. Here are some of the steps to depressurize a fuel line.

Before attempting to start the process, some of the things/equipment you need

  • Wrench
  • Rags

Steps to depressurize the fuel lines in your vehicle

  • Before attempting to start the maintenance work, keep your car on level surface so that it does not move while your working.
  • Open the car hood and locate the engine and the fuel lines.
  • Loosen the fuel filler cap without removing it.
  • Check for the audible hiss, which indicates that the pressure in the fuel tank has been released.
  • Locate the fuel lines that are attached to the fuel filter.
  • In some vehicles, fuel filters are mounted underneath the vehicle’s on a frame rail.

whereas in other vehicles they are located near the engine compartments.

  • Check owner’s manual for the exact location of your fuel filter.
  • Loosen the fittings of the fuel lines on the filter by turning them with a wrench in a counterclockwise direction.
  • Loosen the fittings, make sure you do not remove them completely.
  • After loosening the fitting of the fuel lines wait till the pressure in the lines released completely.
  • The important point to be noted is that the fuel will leak from the cracked-open fittings until the pressure in the fuel lines is released.
  • Clean up all the spills with a piece of cloth piece.
  • Remove the fuel lines from the fuel filter if you need to replace the fuel filters, otherwise leave them loosened until maintenance work is completed.
  • Replace even the fuel lines if they are in bad condition.
  • After replacement, tighten the fuel lines in a clockwise direction.
  • After you completed the checkup, make sure that you need to pressurize the fuel system again.
  • Reconnect the fuel filler cap.
  • Make sure that all the parts are reconnected properly and close the hood.
  • Once start the car and check for the working of the new fuel filter.

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Sobriety Evaluation Tests for DUI and DWI

DUI and DWI are illegal offenses of driving a vehicle while impaired by alcohol or drugs like opium, cocaine, etc. DUI refers to driving under the influence which is impaired by the drugs. DWI refers to driving while intoxicated which is impaired by the alcohol consumption.

There are sobriety tests for evaluation of candidate for DUI and DWI offenses which include:

Field sobriety tests
Field sobriety tests are performed to identify an individual who is driving the vehicle under the influence of drugs or alcohol. These tests were performed by the police officer. The police officer has the right to stop the vehicle and ask individual to take field sobriety tests if he suspects that the individual is driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol. These tests include:

  • Walk and turn test – Police officer will ask you to take this test if he suspects you have been drinking while driving. He may ask you to walk in a straight line and come back. This test is performed to measure individual’s balance and ability to follow instructions.
  • One leg stand test – This task is performed to examine the individual’s balance but it is will not give accurate results in neurological disorder patients. In this, police officer will ask you to stand on one leg. Individual with drunk driving can not balance on one leg. This will give false results in patients with Parkinson disorder.
  • Horizontal gaze test – In this test, the officer will place an object about one feet from the individuals face. Then he moves the object from one side to other to observe eye movements. If an individual is rotating eyes with jerking then he or she is in a drunken state.

Breath alcohol test
This test is performed to measure alcohol content in your breath. This is performed by using a device called breath analyzer. The police officer will ask you to perform breath test. With each breath you take, you take oxygen and release carbon dioxide which contains the concentration of alcohol in your breath. This can be detected by the breath analyzer.

Blood or urine sample tests
These tests are performed to measure the concentration of alcohol in blood and urine. This gives accurate results but it is time consuming. In this, blood or urine samples are taken from the individual and send to the laboratory to measure how much concentration of alcohol is present in blood or urine samples.
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Symptoms of Failure of Fuel Pressure Regulator and How to Replace it

Fuel pressure regulators are primarily used in fuel injector cars. The fuel pressure regulator regulates the pressure of the fuel before it goes to the fuel injector. In fuel injection system is a high pressure system. This high pressure system is produced in fuel pump and regulated by the fuel pressure regulator. The fuel pressure regulator ensures that the system maintains the proper amount of pressurization.

Where is the fuel pressure regulator located?

  • The fuel pressure regulator is located in different places depending upon the vehicle type/ model.
  • For some vehicles/cars, it’s mounted in the fuel rail due to this the extra fuel flowing from the fuel rail through the fuel pressure regulator will enter the fuel return line and it can travel back to the fuel tank.
  • For some vehicles, the vehicles the fuel pressure regulator is located inside the fuel tank mounted.
  • In some cases, even the fuel filter is part of the assembly, making it expensive to replace.
  • Regardless of its location, the job of fuel pressure regulator is same and that is to maintain constant fuel pressure to meet the engine needs.

Symptoms of failure of fuel pressure regulator
Symptoms of failure of the fuel pressure regulator are as follows:

  • Spark plugs blackened.
  • Engine doesn’t run smoothly.
  • Emits black smoke.

Spark plugs blackened

  • Remove one of spark plugs from your car and examine the end of it.
  • If the spark plug is black, it is one of the signs of a bad fuel pressure regulator.
  • If you find one of the sparks plug in this condition, check the rest of them.
  • If only one spark plug is black, it means the engine is burning oil at that location.
  • The regulator could be clogged. You can simply clean them and put them back, but if your engine still runs poorly, replace with a new pressure regulator.

Engine running harshly

  • When you are idling the engine and it is not running smoothly, if it is spitting badly, change your oil filter unless it’s new one.
  • Even then if it doesn’t work, check your pressure regulator.
  • Another sign that your engine is affected by a bad fuel pressure regulator is if you have trouble starting the car.

Exhaust black smoke

  • When black smoke coming out of your exhaust pipe is one of the symptoms that there is something bad with your fuel pressure regulator.
  • Replace the fuel pressure regulator.

How to replace a fuel injector

  • First, switch off the engine of your car and locate the fuel pressure regulator.
  • Then, remove the hoses, wires and other parts that are near by the fuel pressure regulator.
  • Locate the bolts, screws that hold the fuel pressure regulator and remove them.
  • On some vehicles, the regulator is part of the fuel pump module.
  • In such cases, remove the module’s upper and lower sections, disconnect and replace the section with the regulator.
  • Place the new regulator the engine and tighten any bolts.
  • Reconnect all lines and connectors attached to the regulator.
  • Use a small screwdriver to remove any residues.
  • Re-pressurize the fuel pressure regulator and reconnect all the oil pump relay and and battery cables.
  • Turn the ignition switch to “On” position for a couple of seconds.
  • Turn off. Repeat the ignition switch another two or three times.
  • Check if the pressure regulator is working properly without any issue.

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Parental Alienation and Lawyers Help

What is parental alienation?
Parental alienation is a situation when a person is claiming the other person in the couple in front of the child in order to make the child to reject the claimed parent and if it continuously taking place then, this is called parental alienation.

Parental alienation will impact the child’s behavior towards the parent blamed by the their partner. This may also lead to a condition known as parental alienation syndrome (PAS).

Parental alienation syndrome (PAS)
If the child is influenced by the words of his/her parent against the other parent, there is a chance of rejecting the other parent. This is called parental alienation syndrome. If impact on the child is strong, he/she does not even like spend time with the parent.

The difference between parental alienation and the PAS is that the PAS the child is influenced badly by father/mother, which breaks the relation between the child and the father/mother. But many physiologists say PAS is not valid and not considered by most of the laws but. Some courts consider this issue and give a solution to it. However, as if you were a parent of the child, and if you want your child back to you then, you should take help of the lawyer.

Court or law dealing with parental alienation cases
Some experts say that there are three levels of parental alienation – mild, moderate and extreme. Therefore, based on the level of the alienation, the child is treated and motivated under the therapists care. Then, the child custody is changed from one parent to another parent. However, before this the court will help the child in getting the care and tries to evaluate the performance of the child with the help of expert therapist.

After that, the child custody is changed and helps in building up the relation back with the claimed parent. For going through all this process you should take the help of the experienced lawyer who can handle this kind of cases. Through the lawyer you can approach the court in getting help for this alienation problem. It is your right to secure your child relationship with you. Therefore, you should definitely approach the court on this issue if it is too sever.

Parental alienation is an important issue for the kid/s as well as the parents. The parents should take the help of a law professional to make it easy for them to get it done.
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Effects of Smoking & Consumption of Tobacco Products on Oral Cancer

Oral cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the oral cavity that leads to the growth of tumor. The oral cavity includes mouth, lips, tongue, throat and teeth. Oral cancer is a form of head and neck type cancer.

An important factor for oral cancer is tobacco products. That can be due to consumption (smoking, chewing or inhalation) of tobacco products. Tobacco products increase the risk of oral cancer. Tobacco products are carcinogenic – they contain chemicals that can damage the DNA in cells in oral cavity, which causes the growth of oral cancer.

The exposure of oral cavity with these carcinogenic chemicals interfere with the normal functioning of cells on mouth and make cells to prone to infections and dental problems.

Tobacco products causes several dental problems like staining on teeth, gum problems, tooth decay and bad breath. It weakens immunity and delays the healing when any injury takes place in oral cavity.

Tobacco smoke includes cigarettes, cigars, pipes. Pipe smoking is a high risk factor for lip cancer as the pipe touches the lip. The risk of oral cancer depends on the number of cigarettes you smoke per day. Second tobacco smoking increases the chances of second time oral cancer. Avoiding of tobacco gradually decreases the chances of oral cancer.

Smokeless tobacco also has the same risk factors of oral cancer as that of tobacco smoking. It contains nicotine. Smokeless tobacco includes sniff or chewing tobacco. It contains 28 chemicals that irritate the cells in oral cavity and increase the risk of oral cancer. Not only does it cause oral cancer but oesophagus, lungs, kidney cancers as well.

Betel nuts are the seeds obtained from the betel palm tree. These are mildly addictive. They create a stimulating effect and increase the risk of oral cancer. The risk of oral cancer is higher in candidates using betel nuts with smoking or chewing tobacco.

80% of the oral cancer patients have habit of using tobacco products. The risk of oral cancer depends on the frequency of using smoking or tobacco products. The risk of oral cancer is more in candidates who use both tobacco and alcohol. The risk of oral cancer is nine times more in candidates who smoke or use tobacco products than candidates with no habit of tobacco usage. Pipe smoking has a high risk of lip cancer as the pipe touches the lip.

Quitting after 10-15 years the risk of oral cancer is same as that of normal candidates who have no habit of tobacco usage. The few the number of years you smoke and quit and the lower is the risk of oral cancer. In addition, quitting tobacco reduces dental problems.
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Guidelines for New Drivers

Out of the many accidents that happens on the roads, accidents caused by unskilled or new drivers is quite a considerable figure. They lack experience of driving on the roads hence they must be careful while driving on the road. Due to lack of experience of being behind the wheel, they do not know the response time of their vehicle in response to their actions. They need to get slow and gradual experience on the roads. Most of them, being new are either confused or are overexcited brimming with self confidence. They need to understand and interpret the situation clearly and crisply before taking decisions on the road. They should take decisions that are governed by logic, practicality and concern of others on the road.

Guidelines for new drivers
Most major or minor responsibilities in life comes with guidelines. Getting driving skills is one of them. It is a responsibility and a driver owes a lot of responsibility to self and other people on the road. Safety is one of them. Hence it also comes with certain guidelines.

  • A beginner must always obtain a learner permit before he gets on the wheels on the road. The driving permit gives him legal right to drive a vehicle on road. It is testimony to the fact that he is mentally and physically competent to drive a vehicle. A learner must put a warning sign on visible places on his vehicle indicating that he is a learner. This way the other drivers on the road will be aware of this fact and be cautious of your vehicle.
  • New drivers must restrict their drivers till training zones and traffic free areas till they get enough expertise to hit the roads. Even after hitting the roads, they should not take things for granted and remain alert. A new driver should be very thorough with the safety rules and road signs. He is expected to respect these rules and take actions as expected by the rules. This is in the benefits of the driver and other people on the road.
  • New driver must always learn defensive driving. It is a driving that aims at interpreting the situations correctly and taking correct decisions regardless of the mistakes done by the other drivers. It saves life, time and money.
  • Cars and other vehicles comes with certain safety features like seat belts and air bags. The beginner must ensure that he restrains himself with the help of seat belt and makes sure that the safety systems are at place and working properly.
  • As he is new behind the steering wheel, he should nor resort to feats and stunts in a way to impress others. This puts the life of himself and other people on road in danger. Similarly, he should avoid distractions like using phone and eating and should not drive if drunk or drowsy.
  • He is expected to show high regards for personal safety and safety of other people and vehicles on the road.

Beginners should be made aware of the road safety practices and their importance. Such programs can produce a class of drivers who are aware of the importance of road safety and show mutual concern for each other. This can lead to a better tomorrow with roads seeing less of the accidents and more of life.
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